Heart Attack

Heart Attack

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A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when the flow of blood to the heart muscle is blocked, leading to the damage or death of heart cells. It is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Here, we provide you with an in-depth overview of heart attacks, including their causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and preventive measures.

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack typically occurs when a coronary artery, which supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart, becomes narrowed or blocked due to the build-up of plaque or a blood clot. The lack of blood flow can cause irreversible damage to the heart muscle.

What are the causes and risk factors associated with a heart attack?

A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is significantly reduced or blocked, leading to damage or death of the heart tissue. The causes and risk factors associated with a heart attack include:

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

The most common cause of heart attacks is CAD, which is characterized by the buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) in the coronary arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage. These plaques can rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which may block blood flow to the heart


Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attacks. It damages the blood vessels, accelerates the formation of plaques, increases blood pressure, reduces oxygen supply, and promotes blood clotting

High blood pressure

Uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension) puts strain on the heart and arteries, increasing the risk of heart attacks. It contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and can lead to the rupture of plaques

High cholesterol levels

Elevated levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol can lead to the accumulation of plaque in the coronary arteries, increasing the risk of heart attacks


Diabetes, particularly if poorly controlled, is associated with an increased risk of heart attacks. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and nerves, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis

Family history

Having a close relative (such as a parent or sibling) who has had a heart attack or coronary artery disease increases the risk of heart attacks. This suggests a genetic predisposition to cardiovascular problems

Obesity and sedentary lifestyle

Being overweight or obese, especially when accompanied by a sedentary lifestyle, increases the risk of heart attacks. Lack of physical activity can contribute to conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol

Age and gender

The risk of heart attacks increases with age. Men generally have a higher risk of heart attacks, although the risk for women increases after menopause


Chronic stress, especially when combined with unhealthy coping mechanisms such as excessive alcohol consumption or overeating, can contribute to the development of heart disease and heart attacks

Illicit drug use

Certain illicit drugs, such as cocaine or amphetamines, can cause spasms in the coronary arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and increasing the risk of heart attacks

It’s important to note that these factors increase the risk of heart attacks but do not guarantee their occurrence. Adopting a healthy lifestyle, managing underlying health conditions, and following medical advice can help reduce the risk of heart attacks. Regular check-ups, blood pressure monitoring, cholesterol management, smoking cessation, maintaining a healthy weight, and engaging in regular physical activity are important preventive measures.

What are the symptoms of a heart attack?

The symptoms of a heart attack or warning signs of a heart attack can vary from person to person, and they can range from mild to severe. It’s important to note that not everyone experiences the same symptoms, and some people may have atypical or less pronounced symptoms. Here are the common signs and symptoms of a heart attack:

Chest pain and discomfort

This is the most typical symptom of a heart attack. It may feel like pressure, tightness, squeezing, or a heavy weight on the chest. The pain or discomfort may last for a few minutes or come and go.  Chest pain, discomfort or tightness can be a symptom of both angina and a heart attack.

Pain or discomfort in other areas of the upper body

The pain may radiate beyond the chest to the arms (usually the left arm but can also affect both arms), shoulders, neck, jaw, back, or stomach. It may feel like an ache, heaviness, or tightness

Shortness of breath

Feeling breathless or having difficulty catching your breath, even with minimal exertion, can be a sign of a heart attack

Nausea, vomiting, or indigestion

Some people may experience gastrointestinal symptoms, such as feeling sick to their stomach, vomiting, or persistent indigestion-like discomfort

Cold sweats

Profuse sweating, clammy skin, or cold sweats unrelated to exertion or ambient temperature can occur during a heart attack

Lightheadedness or dizziness

Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, or experiencing unexplained fainting or near-fainting can be a symptom of a heart attack


Unusual fatigue or extreme exhaustion, even with minimal physical activity, can occur during a heart attack or in the days leading up to it

It’s important to note that some people, particularly women and older adults, may experience atypical symptoms or milder versions of the above symptoms. They may have symptoms that are less focused on chest pain and more focused on shortness of breath, fatigue, or general discomfort. Additionally, some individuals may experience a “silent heart attack” where they have no noticeable symptoms or only mild discomfort, making it challenging to recognize the event.

If you or someone around you experiences symptoms that may indicate a heart attack, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help by calling emergency services US 911 and UK 999. Quick intervention can save lives and minimize the damage to the heart muscle.

What are the complications of a heart attack?

A heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction, can lead to several complications, some of which can be life-threatening. Here are a few:

  • Heart Failure: A heart attack can damage the heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump blood effectively. This can lead to heart failure, where the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs
  • Arrhythmia: Damage to the heart muscle can disrupt the heart’s electrical system, leading to abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias. Some of these can be serious, such as ventricular fibrillation, which can be life-threatening
  • Cardiogenic Shock: This is a condition where the heart has been so damaged by the attack that it can’t supply enough blood to the organs of the body. This can lead to organ failure and is a medical emergency
  • Myocardial Rupture: Although rare, the heart muscle, walls, or valves can rupture after a heart attack, which is often fatal
  • Ventricular Aneurysm: This is a bulge in the wall of the heart’s ventricle, which can occur in the damaged heart muscle several days or weeks following a heart attack. This condition can lead to blood clots, heart failure, or arrhythmias
  • Pericarditis: Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, often causing chest pain. This can occur as a reaction to the damage from a heart attack
  • Emotional and Mental Health Complications: Depression, anxiety, and stress are common after a heart attack, which can affect recovery and quality of life

My symptoms of indigestion are similar to the heart attack symptoms described above, should I be worried?

Distinguishing between a heart attack and indigestion can sometimes be challenging, as the symptoms can overlap. It’s important to remember that it’s better to err on the side of caution and seek immediate medical attention if you are unsure. Here are some factors to consider when trying to differentiate between the two:

Chest pain or discomfort

Both heart attacks and indigestion can cause chest pain or discomfort, but there are some differences to note.

  • Heart attack: Chest pain or discomfort during a heart attack is often described as a feeling of pressure, tightness, squeezing, or heaviness. It may be located in the center of the chest and can radiate to the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, or back. The pain may be severe and prolonged, lasting more than a few minutes
  • Indigestion: Indigestion-related chest pain is usually described as a burning sensation (heartburn) or discomfort in the upper abdomen or lower chest. It may be accompanied by a feeling of fullness, bloating, or gas. The pain is typically less severe and may come and go or be relieved by antacids or changes in position

Associated symptoms

Pay attention to other symptoms that may accompany the chest pain or discomfort.

  • Heart attack: Symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating (including cold sweats), lightheadedness, nausea, and vomiting are common during a heart attack
  • Indigestion: Indigestion may be accompanied by symptoms such as burping, acid reflux, a sour taste in the mouth, bloating, and discomfort that is worsened by eating

Risk factors and medical history

Consider your personal risk factors for heart disease and your medical history.

  • Heart attack: If you have a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, or a family history of heart attacks, the likelihood of a heart attack may be higher
  • Indigestion: If you have a history of gastrointestinal issues, such as acid reflux or gastritis, or if you recently consumed a large meal or spicy food, indigestion may be more likely

It’s crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain or discomfort that is persistent, severe, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms. Calling emergency services is the best course of action to ensure appropriate evaluation and treatment.

How is a heart attack diagnosed?

Diagnosing a heart attack involves a combination of medical assessments, tests, and reviewing the individual’s medical history. The primary goals are to confirm the occurrence of a heart attack, evaluate its severity, identify the affected area of the heart, and assess the underlying causes. Here are the common diagnostic procedures used:

Medical history and physical examination

The healthcare provider will gather information about the individual’s symptoms, medical history, risk factors, and family history. They will also perform a physical examination to assess vital signs, listen to the heart and lungs, and check for any signs of distress

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An ECG records the electrical activity of the heart. It can help determine if a heart attack is occurring or has occurred by showing characteristic changes in the heart’s electrical pattern. Serial ECGs taken over time can provide additional information

Blood tests

Blood tests are performed to measure certain markers that indicate heart muscle damage. The two primary markers are troponin and creatine kinase (CK-MB). Elevated levels of these markers in the blood can indicate a heart attack. Serial blood tests may be conducted to monitor changes in these markers over time

Coronary angiography

This invasive procedure involves injecting a contrast dye into the coronary arteries and taking X-ray images (angiograms) to evaluate blood flow and detect blockages. It helps identify the location and severity of blockages that may have caused the heart attack


An echocardiogram uses ultrasound to produce images of the heart’s structure, function, and blood flow. It can assess the pumping function of the heart and identify areas of damage or reduced blood flow

Stress tests

Stress tests involve monitoring the heart’s response to physical exertion, usually on a treadmill or stationary bike. They can help evaluate the heart’s performance and detect any abnormalities or reduced blood flow

Cardiac catheterization

In some cases, cardiac catheterization may be performed to directly visualize the coronary arteries and measure pressures within the heart. It can help identify blockages and guide treatment decisions

What are the treatment and recovery options for a heart attack?

The treatment and recovery options for a heart attack aim to restore blood flow to the heart, prevent further damage, and promote healing. Here are the common approaches:

Emergency medical care

If you are experiencing a heart attack, it is crucial to seek emergency medical attention immediately by calling emergency services. Quick intervention can save lives and minimize damage to the heart. Emergency medical personnel can provide initial treatment and transport you to a hospital equipped to handle heart attack cases


Upon arrival at the hospital, you may receive medications to help improve blood flow to the heart, dissolve blood clots, prevent further clot formation, and relieve symptoms. Common medications include aspirin, antiplatelet drugs, thrombolytics (clot-busting drugs), beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and statins to manage cholesterol levels

Coronary angioplasty and stenting

This procedure is often performed urgently or within a few hours of a heart attack. A thin tube (catheter) is inserted into a blocked coronary artery, and a balloon at the tip is inflated to widen the artery and restore blood flow. A small metal mesh tube called a stent is often placed to help keep the artery open

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

In cases where angioplasty is not possible or multiple blockages are present, CABG surgery may be recommended. This surgical procedure involves creating new pathways for blood to bypass blocked arteries using grafts from other blood vessels, typically from the leg or chest

Cardiac rehabilitation

After a heart attack, participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program can help you recover and reduce the risk of future heart problems. These programs involve a combination of supervised exercise, education on heart-healthy lifestyle changes, nutritional counseling, and emotional support

Lifestyle modifications

Adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle is crucial for recovery and reducing the risk of future heart problems. This includes quitting smoking (if applicable), maintaining a healthy weight, following a balanced diet low in saturated and trans fats, engaging in regular physical activity, managing stress, and controlling underlying conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.

What medications are used for heart attacks?

The treatment of a heart attack typically involves a combination of medications aimed at reducing pain, restoring blood flow to the heart, preventing further clot formation, and managing risk factors. Here are some medications commonly used in the treatment of a heart attack:


Aspirin helps prevent blood clot formation and reduce the risk of further heart damage

Thrombolytics (clot-busting drugs)

Thrombolytics are administered in the emergency setting to dissolve blood clots causing a heart attack. Commonly used thrombolytic drugs include alteplase (tPA), reteplase (rPA), and tenecteplase (TNK)

Antiplatelet medications

  • Clopidogrel (Plavix)
  • Prasugrel (Effient)
  • Ticagrelor (Brilinta)


  • Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL)
  • Atenolol (Tenormin)
  • Carvedilol (Coreg)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

  • Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
  • Enalapril (Vasotec)
  • Ramipril (Altace)

Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs):

  • Valsartan (Diovan)
  • Losartan (Cozaar)
  • Candesartan (Atacand)


Statins are cholesterol-lowering medications that help reduce the risk of further cardiovascular events.

  • Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
  • Simvastatin (Zocor)
  • Rosuvastatin (Crestor)


Nitroglycerin helps relieve chest pain by dilating the blood vessels and improving blood flow to the heart

Pain relievers

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids may be used to manage pain associated with a heart attack

How can I prevent a heart attack?

Preventing a heart attack involves adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle and managing risk factors. Here are some strategies that can help you reduce the risk of a heart attack:

  • Quit smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease, including heart attacks. Quitting smoking is one of the most significant steps you can take to improve heart health and reduce the risk of a heart attack
  • Adopt a healthy diet: Follow a balanced diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins (such as fish and poultry), and healthy fats (found in olive oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds). Limit the intake of saturated fats, trans fats, salt, and added sugars. Incorporate fiber-rich foods, such as legumes and whole grains, into your meals
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Obesity and being overweight increase the risk of heart disease and heart attacks. Aim for a healthy weight range by following a nutritious diet and engaging in regular physical activity
  • Exercise regularly: Engage in regular aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week, along with strength training exercises on two or more days
  • Manage stress: Chronic stress can contribute to the development of heart disease. Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as through regular physical activity, relaxation techniques (e.g., deep breathing, meditation, yoga), engaging in hobbies, and maintaining a supportive social network
  • Control blood pressure: High blood pressure (hypertension) is a significant risk factor for heart disease. Monitor your blood pressure regularly, follow your healthcare provider’s recommendations, and take prescribed medications as directed
  • Manage cholesterol levels: High levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol contribute to the development of plaque in the arteries. Control cholesterol levels through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and, if needed, medication prescribed by your healthcare provider
  • Control diabetes: If you have diabetes, work with your healthcare team to manage your blood sugar levels effectively. Keep regular check-ups, take prescribed medications, follow a healthy diet, and engage in regular physical activity
  • Limit alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase blood pressure, contribute to obesity, and raise the risk of heart disease. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation—up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men; In the UK, the Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) recommendation is that men and women do not regularly drink more than 14 units of alcohol per week
  • Get regular check-ups: Schedule regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and overall heart health. Address any concerns or symptoms promptly

What heart attack support organizations are there available to support me in the UK?

  • British Heart Foundation (BHF): The British Heart Foundation is a leading charity organization in the UK that focuses on heart and circulatory diseases, including heart attacks. They provide a wealth of information on heart health, including heart attack prevention, treatment, and recovery. They offer a helpline, support groups, and online resources. They also fund research initiatives and campaigns for heart health awareness
  • The Heart Research UK: Heart Research UK is a charity organization that funds research into heart-related conditions, including heart attacks. They provide educational materials, resources, and support for individuals affected by heart disease. They also offer grants for research projects aimed at improving heart health

What heart attack support organizations are there available to support me in the US?

  • American Heart Association (AHA): The American Heart Association is a leading nonprofit organization focused on heart health and cardiovascular diseases. They provide a wealth of information on heart attack prevention, treatment, and recovery. They offer a helpline, support groups, and educational resources. They also fund research initiatives and advocate for heart health awareness
  • Mended Hearts: Mended Hearts is a national nonprofit organization that provides support to heart disease patients and their families. They offer peer-to-peer support through trained volunteers who have experienced heart attacks or other heart-related conditions. They provide hospital visitations, support group meetings, and educational resources
  • WomenHeart: The National Coalition for Women with Heart Disease, also known as WomenHeart, is a nonprofit organization that focuses on supporting women living with heart disease, including heart attacks. They provide educational resources, support networks, online communities, and advocacy efforts specific to women’s heart health


Heart attacks are serious medical emergencies that require immediate attention. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and adopting preventive measures are crucial for reducing the risk of heart attacks. By maintaining a heart-healthy lifestyle, managing risk factors, and seeking appropriate medical care, individuals can improve their heart health and reduce the likelihood of experiencing a heart attack.

Medical Disclaimer

NowPatient has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that all material is factually accurate, complete, and current. However, the knowledge and experience of a qualified healthcare professional should always be sought after instead of using the information in this page. Before taking any drug, you should always speak to your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider.

The information provided here about medications is subject to change and is not meant to include all uses, precautions, warnings, directions, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or negative effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a particular medication does not imply that the medication or medication combination is appropriate for all patients or for all possible purposes.

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