Medically reviewed by
Stefano Mirabello/ B.Pharm
Mail Order Pharmacy
RivastigmineGeneric for Exelon
DonepezilGeneric for Aricept
MemantineGeneric for Namenda
Dementia is a progressive neurological condition that affects cognitive functions, memory, behavior, and the ability to perform daily activities. Dementia is not a normal part of aging. Indeed, it is not a specific disease but rather an umbrella term that encompasses a range of symptoms associated with cognitive decline. Dementia primarily affects older individuals, and its prevalence increases with age. Here, we provide you with an in-depth overview of dementia, including its symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and management options.
What is the definition of dementia?
Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities beyond what is considered a normal age-related decline. It involves impairments in memory, thinking, communication, judgment, and problem-solving skills. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for approximately 60-70% of cases. Other types include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and mixed dementia, which is a combination of different types.
What are the risk factors associated with dementia?
The risk factors associated with dementia can vary depending on the type of dementia. Here are some common risk factors:
The risk of developing dementia increases with age. While dementia can affect younger individuals, it is more common in older adults
Having a family history of dementia, especially in first-degree relatives (parents or siblings), increases the risk of developing the condition
Certain genetic mutations are associated with an increased risk of developing specific types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, these genetic factors are relatively rare and account for a small percentage of dementia cases
Individuals with Down syndrome have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia, typically at an earlier age
Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes, can increase the risk of vascular dementia
Smoking and Alcohol Use
Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been linked to an increased risk of dementia
Head Injuries or traumatic brain injuries
A history of severe head injuries, particularly those involving loss of consciousness, may increase the risk of developing certain types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia
Chronic sleep disorders, including sleep apnea and insomnia, have been associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia
Social Isolation and Lack of Mental Stimulation
Limited social interaction, lack of intellectual engagement, and sedentary lifestyles may contribute to an increased risk of dementia
Depression and Mental Health Conditions
Chronic depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions may be associated with an increased risk of developing dementia
It is important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not necessarily mean a person will develop dementia. They simply indicate an increased likelihood. Additionally, the presence of risk factors does not guarantee the development of dementia, and individuals without these risk factors can still develop the condition. It is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle, manage chronic conditions, and seek regular medical care to minimize the risk of dementia.
What are the causes of dementia?
Dementia is a complex condition with multiple underlying causes. The specific cause of dementia depends on the type of dementia. Here are some common causes:
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for approximately 60-80% of cases. It is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits (amyloid plaques and tau tangles) in the brain, leading to the progressive loss of brain cells and cognitive decline
Vascular dementia occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the brain due to damage to blood vessels. This can be caused by conditions such as stroke, small vessel disease, or other vascular disorders. The lack of proper blood supply leads to brain tissue damage and cognitive impairment
Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy body dementia is caused by the buildup of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain. These deposits disrupt normal brain function and lead to cognitive decline, motor symptoms, and fluctuations in alertness and attention. It shares similarities with both Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
Frontotemporal dementia is characterized by the degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. It is caused by abnormal protein deposits, genetic mutations, or a combination of both. This type of dementia often affects behavior, language, and personality before memory problems become apparent
Mixed dementia refers to the presence of more than one type of dementia, usually Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. It is common for individuals to have a combination of brain changes associated with different types of dementia
Other less common causes of dementia include Parkinson’s disease dementia, Huntington’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, HIV-associated dementia, and certain metabolic and nutritional disorders
Understanding the underlying cause of dementia is crucial for appropriate management treatment, and support. A comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional specializing in memory disorders is necessary to determine the specific cause of dementia and develop an appropriate care plan.
What are the different types of dementia?
There are several different types of dementia, each with its own characteristics and underlying causes. Here are some of the most common types:
- Alzheimer’s Disease: Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia, accounting for around 60-80% of cases. It is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits (amyloid plaques and tau tangles) in the brain, leading to the progressive loss of brain cells and cognitive decline
- Vascular Dementia: Vascular dementia occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the brain due to damage to blood vessels. It can result from conditions such as stroke, small vessel disease, or other vascular disorders. The lack of proper blood supply leads to brain tissue damage and cognitive impairment
- Lewy Body Dementia: Lewy body dementia is caused by the buildup of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain. These deposits disrupt normal brain function and lead to cognitive decline, motor symptoms (similar to Parkinson’s disease), and fluctuations in alertness and attention
- Frontotemporal Dementia: Frontotemporal dementia involves the degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. It is characterized by changes in behavior, language difficulties, and a decline in executive functions. There are different subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, including behavioral variant, semantic variant, and progressive nonfluent aphasia
- Mixed Dementia: Mixed dementia refers to the coexistence of more than one type of dementia, most commonly Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. It is not uncommon for individuals to have a combination of brain changes associated with different types of dementia
- Parkinson’s Disease Dementia: Parkinson’s disease is primarily a movement disorder, but some individuals may develop cognitive decline and dementia in the later stages of the disease. This is known as Parkinson’s disease dementia
- Huntington’s Disease: Huntington’s disease is a genetic disorder that causes the progressive degeneration of brain cells. It leads to both movement problems and cognitive decline, resulting in a form of dementia
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder. It is caused by abnormal proteins called prions and results in rapid cognitive decline, neurological symptoms, and involuntary movements
These are just a few examples of the different types of dementia. Each type has its own unique characteristics, progression, and underlying causes. It is important to obtain a proper diagnosis from a healthcare professional specializing in memory disorders to determine the specific type of dementia and develop an appropriate care plan.
What is the pathophysiology of dementia?
The pathophysiology of dementia varies depending on the specific type of dementia. However, there are some common mechanisms and processes involved in the development and progression of dementia. Here is a general overview:
- Neurodegeneration: Most types of dementia involve the progressive degeneration and loss of brain cells (neurons). This leads to a decline in brain function and the characteristic cognitive and behavioral changes associated with dementia
- Protein Aggregates: In many types of dementia, abnormal protein aggregates accumulate in the brain. These protein deposits can interfere with normal cellular processes and contribute to the neurodegenerative process. For example, Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques and tau tangles, while Lewy body dementia involves the buildup of abnormal alpha-synuclein protein in Lewy bodies
- Neurotransmitter Imbalance: Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that play a crucial role in communication between brain cells. In dementia, there is often an imbalance in neurotransmitter levels. For example, in Alzheimer’s disease, there is a decline in acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory and learning
- Vascular Changes: In vascular dementia, which is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, there are structural and functional abnormalities in the blood vessels. This can include the formation of blood clots, narrowing of blood vessels, or damage to the vessel walls. The reduced blood flow deprives brain cells of oxygen and nutrients, leading to their dysfunction and death
- Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play a role in the development and progression of dementia. Inflammatory processes can damage brain cells and contribute to neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, can lead to cellular damage and impair brain function
- Synaptic Dysfunction: Dementia often involves disruption of synaptic connections between neurons. Synapses are the junctions where neurons communicate with each other. The loss or dysfunction of synapses impairs the transmission of signals and disrupts normal brain function
What are the signs and symptoms of dementia?
Dementia is characterized by a wide range of symptoms that can vary depending on the type and stage of the condition. The common signs and symptoms of dementia include:
One of the most prominent early signs of dementia is memory loss. This includes forgetting recent events, difficulty remembering names or conversations, and frequently misplacing items
Dementia affects various cognitive functions, leading to a decline in thinking abilities. This can manifest as difficulty with problem-solving, planning, organizing, and making decisions. Individuals may also experience trouble with attention, concentration, and multitasking
Language and Communication Problems
Dementia can impact language skills, causing difficulty finding the right words, following conversations, or expressing oneself clearly. Reading and writing abilities may also be affected
Impaired Judgment and Reasoning
People with dementia may exhibit poor judgment and reasoning abilities. They may make unwise financial decisions, exhibit impulsiveness, or have difficulty assessing risks and consequences
Changes in Mood and Behavior
Dementia can result in mood swings, irritability, anxiety, depression, and agitation. Individuals may become more apathetic, withdrawn, or exhibit changes in personality. They may also experience restlessness, pacing, or increased wandering
Disorientation and Confusion
Dementia can cause disorientation to time, place, and person. Individuals may become confused about their surroundings, forget familiar routes, or have trouble recognizing people, even close family members
Problems with Motor Function
In later stages of certain types of dementia, individuals may experience motor symptoms such as muscle weakness, tremors, or difficulty with coordination and balance. This is particularly evident in conditions like Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia
Difficulties with Self-Care
As dementia progresses, individuals may struggle with basic self-care tasks, such as grooming, bathing, dressing, and feeding themselves
It’s important to note that the signs and symptoms of dementia can vary from person to person, and the progression of symptoms can be gradual or rapid, depending on the underlying cause. If you or a loved one are experiencing any concerning symptoms, it is recommended to seek medical evaluation and guidance from a healthcare professional specializing in memory disorders for proper diagnosis and care.
What are the stages of dementia?
Dementia is a progressive condition that typically develops in stages, each characterized by a different level of cognitive decline and functional impairment. While the staging systems may vary, here is a general overview of the stages of dementia:
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
This stage is considered a pre-dementia phase where individuals may experience mild cognitive changes but still function independently. Memory lapses and difficulties with concentration and focus may be noticeable. However, daily activities and relationships are generally not significantly impacted
In the early stage of dementia, mild to moderate cognitive impairment becomes more apparent. Memory loss and cognitive difficulties become more noticeable and may affect work, social interactions, and daily routines. Individuals may have trouble finding words, experience short-term memory loss, and exhibit mild changes in behavior or mood
The middle stage of dementia is often the longest and can last for several years. Cognitive decline becomes more pronounced, and individuals may have significant difficulty with memory, language, reasoning, and problem-solving. They may struggle with tasks such as managing finances, following instructions, and organizing daily activities. Behavioral changes may become more prominent, and individuals may require assistance with daily living activities
In the late stage of dementia, cognitive function severely declines, and individuals become increasingly dependent on others for their care. Memory loss is extensive, and individuals may lose the ability to recognize loved ones, communicate effectively, or perform basic self-care tasks. Physical decline becomes more apparent, and individuals may experience difficulty with mobility, swallowing, and continence
It’s important to note that not everyone with dementia follows the same progression, and the duration of each stage can vary. Additionally, there are different staging systems used by healthcare professionals to assess the progression of dementia. These stages provide a general framework to understand the typical trajectory of the condition, but it’s important to consider individual variations and seek professional medical guidance for accurate assessment and care planning
How is dementia diagnosed?
The diagnosis of dementia involves a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional, typically a specialist such as a neurologist or geriatrician. The diagnostic process for dementia typically includes the following:
The healthcare provider will take a detailed medical history, including a discussion of the individual’s symptoms, their duration and progression, and any associated medical conditions or medications
A physical examination will be conducted to assess overall health and to look for any signs of underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to cognitive symptoms
Various cognitive tests and assessments will be administered to evaluate memory, thinking skills, language abilities, and problem-solving abilities. These assessments may include standardized tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)
Blood tests may be conducted to check for underlying medical conditions, such as thyroid dysfunction or vitamin deficiencies, that can cause cognitive impairment and mimic symptoms of dementia
Brain scans and Imaging
Imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, may be performed to assess the structure and function of the brain. These tests can help identify any structural abnormalities or changes that are associated with dementia
Additional assessments may be conducted to evaluate mental health, behavior, and functional abilities. This may involve interviews with family members or caregivers who can provide insights into changes in behavior and daily functioning
It’s important to note that the diagnosis of dementia is typically based on a combination of clinical evaluation, cognitive testing, and other diagnostic tests. The goal is to rule out other potential causes of cognitive symptoms and to determine the underlying cause of dementia. The specific diagnostic process may vary depending on the healthcare provider and the individual’s circumstances. If you suspect that you or a loved one may be experiencing symptoms of dementia, it is recommended to seek a medical evaluation from a qualified healthcare professional.
How is dementia prevented?
Currently, there is no known way to prevent or cure dementia entirely. However, there are certain lifestyle choices and strategies that may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of dementia. Here are some preventive measures that may be beneficial:
- Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle: Engage in regular physical exercise, follow a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, and maintain a healthy weight. These lifestyle choices can promote overall health and may help reduce the risk of developing dementia
- Manage Chronic Conditions: Keep chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol under control. Proper management of these conditions can contribute to overall brain health
- Stay Mentally and Socially Active: Engage in activities that challenge and stimulate the brain, such as reading, puzzles, learning new skills, or participating in social and community activities. Intellectual stimulation and social interaction may help maintain cognitive function and promote brain health
- Protect the Head: Take precautions to prevent head injuries, as severe head trauma can increase the risk of developing certain types of dementia. Use seat belts in cars, wear protective headgear during sports or recreational activities, and make the home environment safe to prevent falls
- Avoid Smoking and Limit Alcohol Consumption: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been linked to an increased risk of developing dementia. Quitting smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation, or avoiding it altogether, can promote brain health
- Manage Stress: Chronic stress can have a negative impact on brain health. Adopt stress management techniques such as exercise, relaxation techniques, mindfulness, or engaging in hobbies to help reduce stress levels
- Maintain a Healthy Sleep Routine: Prioritize quality sleep and establish a regular sleep routine. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night. Poor sleep patterns and sleep disorders have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline
It’s important to note that while these preventive measures may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of dementia, they do not guarantee complete prevention. Additionally, certain types of dementia, such as those caused by genetic factors or underlying medical conditions, may not be entirely preventable. It’s always advisable to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and guidance based on individual circumstances.
What are the treatment and management options for dementia?
The treatment and management of dementia aim to slow down the progression of symptoms, improve quality of life, and provide support for individuals and their caregivers. While there is currently no cure for most forms of dementia, there are various strategies and approaches that can be employed. Here are some treatment and management options for dementia:
Certain medications may be prescribed to manage specific symptoms associated with dementia, such as memory loss, cognitive decline, mood changes, or sleep disturbances. These medications include cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil, rivastigmine) and memantine, which can help improve cognitive function and manage behavioral symptoms
Engaging in activities that stimulate the brain can help maintain cognitive function and enhance overall well-being. These activities may include puzzles, memory games, reading, art, music, or participating in structured cognitive rehabilitation programs
Various therapies can be beneficial in managing the emotional and psychological aspects of dementia. These may include counseling, psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or reminiscence therapy. These interventions can help individuals cope with the emotional impact of dementia and enhance their quality of life
Encouraging a healthy lifestyle can contribute to overall well-being and potentially slow down the progression of symptoms. This may include regular physical exercise, a balanced diet, adequate sleep, and avoiding substances such as alcohol or tobacco that can worsen cognitive decline
Making changes to the living environment can help enhance safety, independence, and reduce confusion for individuals with dementia. This may involve removing tripping hazards, improving lighting, using labels or color coding, and installing safety features like handrails or grab bars
Social Support and Engagement
Maintaining social connections and engagement is crucial for individuals with dementia. Participation in social activities, support groups, or community programs can help reduce feelings of isolation, provide emotional support, and promote a sense of belonging
Providing support and resources for caregivers is essential in managing dementia. Caregivers may benefit from education, training, respite care, and support groups to help them cope with the challenges of caregiving and maintain their own well-being
It’s important to note that the treatment and management approach may vary depending on the type and stage of dementia, as well as individual needs and preferences. Healthcare professionals specializing in dementia care can provide personalized guidance and develop a comprehensive care plan tailored to each individual’s specific situation.
What medications are used in dementia?
Dementia is not currently reversible. Certain medications may help slow the progress of dementia. Drug interventions include:
- Donepezil (Aricept)
- Rivastigmine (Exelon)
- Galantamine (Razadyne)
Disease modifying Biologics
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist
- Memantine (Namenda)
What are the complications of dementia?
Dementia is a progressive condition that affects multiple aspects of a person’s cognitive and functional abilities. As the disease progresses, several complications may arise. Here are some common complications associated with dementia:
- Increased Dependency: As dementia progresses, individuals may experience a decline in their ability to perform daily activities independently. This can lead to increased dependency on caregivers for tasks such as bathing, dressing, eating, and managing medications
- Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms: Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common in dementia and can include agitation, aggression, anxiety, depression, hallucinations, delusions, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms can be distressing for both the individual and their caregivers
- Worsening Cognitive Function: Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, impaired judgment, and problems with reasoning and problem-solving. As the disease progresses, these cognitive impairments can become more severe, affecting a person’s ability to perform daily tasks and engage in meaningful activities
- Increased Risk of Falls and Injuries: Dementia can impair balance, coordination, and spatial awareness, increasing the risk of falls and injuries. This is especially true in later stages of the disease when mobility becomes more challenging. Falls can lead to fractures, head injuries, and other complications
- Malnutrition and Dehydration: Individuals with dementia may have difficulty with eating and drinking, which can lead to malnutrition and dehydration. They may forget to eat, have difficulty using utensils, or have trouble swallowing. Weight loss and nutritional deficiencies can further contribute to complications and overall decline in health
- Infections: People with dementia are more susceptible to infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or pneumonia. Their weakened immune system, impaired ability to communicate symptoms, and difficulties with personal hygiene may increase the risk of infections
- Inability to Communicate: As dementia progresses, individuals may have difficulty expressing themselves verbally or understanding spoken language. This can lead to frustration, isolation, and difficulty in communicating needs and preferences
- Caregiver Burden: Dementia can place significant emotional, physical, and financial burden on caregivers. Providing care for someone with dementia can be demanding and stressful, potentially impacting the caregiver’s well-being and quality of life
Promising research and future direction of dementia
Research on dementia is ongoing, and scientists and healthcare professionals are continuously working to better understand the condition, develop effective treatments, and improve care. Here are some promising areas of research and future directions in the field of dementia:
- Early Detection and Diagnosis: There is a growing focus on improving early detection and diagnosis of dementia. Researchers are exploring various biomarkers, imaging techniques, and cognitive assessments to identify signs of dementia in its early stages, even before symptoms become apparent. Early diagnosis can lead to earlier interventions and potentially more effective management of the disease
- Targeted Therapies: Scientists are investigating novel therapies that specifically target the underlying mechanisms of dementia. This includes exploring new drug targets, such as proteins associated with Alzheimer’s disease, or developing interventions that can modify the progression of the disease
- Lifestyle Interventions: Researchers are studying the impact of lifestyle factors on dementia risk and progression. Lifestyle interventions, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, cognitive stimulation, social engagement, and managing cardiovascular risk factors, are being investigated for their potential to reduce the risk of developing dementia or slow down its progression
- Precision Medicine: Personalized or precision medicine aims to tailor treatments based on an individual’s unique characteristics, genetics, and disease profile. Scientists are working on identifying genetic factors and other biomarkers that can help predict a person’s risk of developing dementia, inform treatment decisions, and guide the development of targeted therapies
- Technology and Digital Health: The use of technology and digital health solutions is expanding in dementia research and care. This includes the development of mobile applications, wearable devices, remote monitoring systems, and virtual reality tools that can assist with early detection, provide cognitive stimulation, monitor symptoms, and support caregivers
What dementia support organizations are there available to support me in the UK?
- Alzheimer’s Society: The Alzheimer’s Society is the largest dementia support organization in the UK. They offer a wide range of services, including a helpline, support groups, online community forums, information resources, and dementia advisors who can provide personalized support
- Dementia UK: Dementia UK provides support for families facing dementia through their Admiral Nurse service. Admiral Nurses are specialist dementia nurses who offer practical advice, emotional support, and guidance to individuals and families affected by dementia
- YoungDementia UK: YoungDementia UK focuses on supporting individuals diagnosed with young-onset dementia and their families. They provide information, advice, support groups, and activities specifically tailored to the unique needs of younger people with dementia
- Lewy Body Society: The Lewy Body Society is a charity that supports individuals and families affected by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). They offer information resources, support groups, and funds for research into DLB
- Age UK: Age UK is a national charity that provides support and resources for older people, including those with dementia. They offer information, advice, and local services that can help individuals and families navigate the challenges of living with dementia
- Rare Dementia Support: Rare Dementia Support is a charity that focuses on providing support for individuals and families affected by rare forms of dementia, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). They offer information resources, support groups, and educational events
What dementia support organizations are there available to support me in the US?
- Alzheimer’s Association: The Alzheimer’s Association is the largest nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting individuals and families affected by Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. They offer a 24/7 helpline, support groups, educational resources, care consultations, and advocacy efforts
- Dementia Society of America: The Dementia Society of America provides support, education, and resources for individuals and families impacted by dementia. They offer online support groups, educational materials, and guidance on care management
- Lewy Body Dementia Association (LBDA): LBDA is a nonprofit organization that focuses on supporting individuals and families affected by Lewy body dementia (LBD). They provide resources, educational materials, support groups, and connections to LBD specialists
- Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD): AFTD is an organization that offers support, education, and advocacy for individuals and families impacted by frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). They provide resources, educational webinars, support group listings, and information on clinical trials
- UsAgainstAlzheimer’s: UsAgainstAlzheimer’s is an advocacy organization that focuses on accelerating the development of treatments and finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. They offer resources, educational materials, support groups, and opportunities to engage in advocacy efforts
- Caregiver Action Network (CAN): CAN is a nonprofit organization that supports family caregivers. While not specific to dementia, they provide resources, support, and educational materials for individuals caring for loved ones with various health conditions, including dementia
- What Is Dementia? Symptoms, Types, and Diagnosis: The national institutes of health. NIH
Dementia is a complex condition that profoundly impacts individuals and their families. It is important to recognise the signs and symptoms, seek timely medical evaluation, and implement appropriate management strategies. While there is currently no cure for most types of dementia, a multidimensional approach involving medical, psychological, and lifestyle interventions can significantly improve the quality of life for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. Ongoing research holds promise for advancements in prevention, early detection, and treatment options, which may have a substantial impact on addressing the global burden of dementia.
Now Patient has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that all material is factually accurate, complete, and current. However, the knowledge and experience of a qualified healthcare professional should always be sought after instead of using the information in this page. Before taking any drug, you should always speak to your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider.
The information provided here about medications is subject to change and is not meant to include all uses, precautions, warnings, directions, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or negative effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a particular medication does not imply that the medication or medication combination is appropriate for all patients or for all possible purposes.
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