Genital Warts

Genital Warts

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Table of contents
OverviewWhat are Genital Warts?Causes of Genital WartsSymptoms of Genital WartsDiagnosis of Genital WartsTreatment options for Genital WartsPrevention of Genital WartsComplications of Genital WartsSeeking Medical AssistanceFrequently asked questions about Genital WartsPrognosis and long-term outlookConclusionSources
Navin Khosla NowPatientGreen tick
Medically reviewed by Navin Khosla, BPharm and written by Rajive Patel, BPharm - Updated on 26 Jan 2024
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Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts can appear as small, fleshy growths in the genital area, including the vagina, vulva, penis, anal area, and rectum. They can also occur internally on the opening to the urethra, on the cervix, inside the vagina, or in the anus. While genital warts are usually painless, they can be itchy and uncomfortable. It is important to understand the causes, symptoms, treatment options, and prevention methods associated with genital warts.

What are Genital Warts?

Genital warts are growths that develop in the genital area as a result of an infection with certain types of HPV virus. They can vary in size and appearance, ranging from small, raised bumps to larger, cauliflower-like clusters. Genital warts can be transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal sex, anal sex, and oral sex. It is important to note that not all individuals infected with HPV will develop visible warts, as the virus can remain dormant in some cases.

Causes of Genital Warts

Genital warts are primarily caused by specific strains of the human papillomavirus. HPV is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity or by sharing sex toys. The types of HPV that cause genital warts are different from those that can lead to cervical, anal, or other types of cancer. It is important to practice safe sexual practices and undergo regular screening for HPV and other STIs to reduce the risk of developing genital warts.

Symptoms of Genital Warts

The symptoms of genital warts may vary from person to person. In some cases, individuals may not experience any signs or symptoms, making it difficult to detect the infection. However, when symptoms do occur, they often include the presence of small, flesh-colored or grayish bumps in the genital area. These warts may be painless or cause itching, discomfort, or bleeding. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have genital warts or notice any changes in your genital area.

Diagnosis of Genital Warts

If you suspect you have genital warts, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis. A doctor or nurse can visually inspect the affected area and identify the presence of genital warts. In some cases, additional tests, such as a biopsy, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis or rule out other conditions. It is essential to disclose your sexual history and any symptoms you may be experiencing to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment options for Genital Warts

While there is no cure for HPV, various treatment options are available to manage and remove genital warts. The specific treatment method will depend on factors such as the size, location, and number of warts. Common treatment options include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing), laser treatment, and surgical removal. It is important to note that while these treatments can remove visible warts, they do not eliminate the underlying HPV infection.

Topical medications

Topical medications, such as creams or solutions, can be applied directly to the warts to help remove them. These medications work by destroying the warts and stimulating the body’s immune response. They are typically applied at home over a prescribed period of time. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider and avoid using over-the-counter wart treatments on genital warts, as they may be too harsh or ineffective.


Cryotherapy involves the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy the warts. The freezing process causes the warts to blister and eventually fall off. Multiple cryotherapy sessions may be required for complete wart removal. It is common to experience mild discomfort or pain during and after the procedure. Your healthcare provider will discuss the details and potential side effects of cryotherapy with you.

Laser Treatment

Laser treatment involves the use of a focused beam of light to target and destroy the warts. This method is often used for larger or more stubborn warts. Laser treatment may require local anesthesia to numb the area and minimize discomfort. Similar to other treatment options, multiple sessions may be necessary to achieve the desired results. Your healthcare provider will determine if laser treatment is suitable for your specific case.

Surgical Removal

In some cases, surgical removal of genital warts may be necessary. Surgical procedures, such as excision or electrosurgery, involve physically cutting or burning off the warts. These procedures are typically performed under local anesthesia. Surgical removal may be recommended for large or extensive warts that do not respond to other treatment methods. Your healthcare provider will provide medical advice and discuss the potential risks and benefits of surgical removal with you.

Prevention of Genital Warts

Preventing genital warts involves practicing safe sexual behaviors and taking advantage of available vaccination options.

HPV Vaccination

The HPV vaccine is an effective method of preventing HPV infection, reducing the high risk of developing genital warts and certain types of cancer. Vaccination is recommended for both males and females, typically starting during adolescence. Side effects from vaccines are mild, including soreness where the injection was given, headaches, fever or flu-like symptoms. It is important to discuss vaccination options with your healthcare provider and follow the recommended vaccination schedule.

Safe Sexual Practices

Practicing safe sex can significantly reduce the risk of contracting and spreading genital warts. This includes using condoms consistently and correctly during sexual activity and limiting sexual partners. It is also important to undergo regular screenings for STIs and discuss sexual health with your partner(s) to ensure open communication and shared responsibility.

Complications of Genital Warts

While genital warts themselves do not typically cause serious health complications, they can have emotional and psychological impacts. The presence of visible warts may cause distress or discomfort. Additionally, certain strains of HPV that cause genital warts may be associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Regular screenings and open communication with healthcare providers can help detect and manage any potential complications.

Seeking Medical Assistance

If you suspect you have genital warts or are experiencing symptoms, it is important to seek medical assistance. A healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis, discuss treatment options, and offer guidance on preventing future outbreaks. Additionally, regular check-ups and screenings for STIs are essential for maintaining sexual health and well-being.

Frequently asked questions about Genital Warts

How are Genital Warts are transmitted?

Genital warts are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact during sexual activities. This includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex. It is important to note that HPV can infect areas not covered by a condom, such as the scrotum, thighs, or groin. Therefore, condoms cannot provide full protection against HPV transmission.

How do I know I have Genital Warts?

Genital warts typically appear as growths or bumps on the skin around the genital area, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, anus, groin, or thighs. These warts can vary in size, shape, and texture, ranging from small, flat warts to larger, cauliflower-like clusters. It is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect you have genital warts.

Can I treat Genital Warts at home?

In some cases, healthcare providers may prescribe topical medications that can be applied at home. These treatments are generally safe and effective when used as directed. However, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to avoid adverse reactions or complications. If self-treatment is not effective or if the warts are widespread or persistent, professional medical intervention may be necessary.

How do I stop getting Genital Warts?

Engaging in safe sexual practices can significantly reduce the risk of contracting genital warts and other sexually transmitted infections. Consistent and correct condom use, regular STI testing, open communication with sexual partners, and limiting the number of sexual partners can all contribute to preventing HPV transmission.

Are there vaccines to prevent Genital Warts?

Vaccination is an effective strategy for preventing HPV infections and reducing the risk of developing genital warts and HPV-related cancers. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both males and females and is most effective when administered before sexual activity begins. However, individuals who are already sexually active can still benefit from the vaccine by preventing new HPV infections.

What natural remedies can I use for Genital Warts?

While natural remedies may offer temporary relief or support overall skin health, there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in treating genital warts. Some natural remedies that are commonly suggested include tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar, garlic, and aloe vera. However, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before attempting any alternative treatments.

What self-care tips are there for managing Genital Warts?

In addition to medical treatments, certain self-care practices can help manage genital warts and minimize discomfort. These include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sexual activity during treatment, avoiding scratching or picking at the warts, wearing loose-fitting clothing, and maintaining a healthy immune system through a balanced diet and regular exercise.

Can Genital Warts cause Cancer?

While most HPV infections are harmless and do not lead to severe health issues, certain types of HPV can cause abnormal cell changes that may progress to various cancers. These cancers include cervical cancer, vaginal, vulvar, anal, head and neck, and penile cancers. Regular screening and vaccination are essential in preventing HPV-related cancers.

Prognosis and long-term outlook

In most cases, genital warts can be effectively treated and managed with appropriate medical interventions. With timely treatment and regular follow-ups, the prognosis is generally positive. It is important to remember that human papillomavirus infections can clear on their own over time, and individuals should continue practicing safe sexual behaviors and attending regular screenings to monitor their overall health.


Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by certain types of HPV. While they can be uncomfortable and unsightly, treatment options are available to manage and remove visible warts. It is important to practice safe sexual behaviors, consider HPV vaccination, and seek medical assistance for proper diagnosis and treatment. By taking proactive measures, individuals can reduce the risk of contracting and spreading genital warts, promoting overall sexual health and well-being.


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NowPatient has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that all material is factually accurate, complete, and current. However, the knowledge and experience of a qualified healthcare professional should always be sought after instead of using the information in this page. Before taking any drug, you should always speak to your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider.

The information provided here about medications is subject to change and is not meant to include all uses, precautions, warnings, directions, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or negative effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a particular medication does not imply that the medication or medication combination is appropriate for all patients or for all possible purposes.

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