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How Exercise and Physical Activity Effect Mental Health

How Exercise and Physical Activity Effect Mental Health

Navin Khosla NowPatientGreen tick
Updated on 29 Dec 2023

In today’s fast-paced and stressful world, it’s more important than ever to prioritize our mental health and well-being. While there are many strategies we can employ to support our mental well-being, one of the most effective and accessible methods is regular physical activity and exercise. The link between exercise and mental health has been extensively studied and proven, with numerous benefits for individuals of all ages and fitness levels. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the profound connection between exercise and mental health conditions, uncovering the science behind it and providing practical tips to help you incorporate physical activity into your daily routine.

The mental health benefits of exercise

When we engage in regular physical activity, our bodies release feel-good hormones called endorphins, which have positive effects on our mood and overall well-being. These endorphins act as natural mood boosters, reducing anxiety, stress, and even symptoms of depression. Additionally, the effects of physical activity promote neural growth, reduce inflammation, and create new activity patterns in the brain that foster feelings of calm and well-being. The mental health benefits of exercise are extensive and include:

Improved mood and reduced depression

Studies have shown that exercise can be as effective as antidepressant medication in treating mild to moderate depression. The levels of chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin, stress hormones, and endorphins, change when you exercise improving mood and reducing feelings of depression. Research conducted by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that as little as 15 minutes of running or an hour of walking per day can reduce the risk of major depression by 26%. Regular exercise not only relieves depression symptoms but also helps prevent relapse of mental illness.

Another important reason to be active is the positive impact of physical activity on the body such as preventing diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

Reduced anxiety and stress

Exercise is a natural and effective way to alleviate anxiety and stress. Physical activity relieves tension in the body, boosts energy levels, and increases mental and physical resilience. By focusing on the sensations of your body during exercise, such as the rhythm of your breathing or the feeling of your feet hitting the ground, you can practice mindfulness and interrupt the cycle of negative thoughts that contribute to anxiety. Whether it’s yoga, pilates, or a brisk walk, any form of exercise that gets you moving can help alleviate anxiety and stress.

Enhanced cognitive function and memory

Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function and memory. Physical activity stimulates the growth of new brain cells, enhances neural connectivity, and increases blood flow to the brain, all of which contribute to improved cognitive abilities. Engaging in exercise can sharpen your memory, enhance focus and attention, and improve overall brain function.

Increased self-esteem and confidence

Regular physical activity not only improves our physical health but also boosts our self-esteem and confidence. Achieving exercise goals, no matter how small instils a sense of accomplishment and increases self-worth. As you become more physically fit and notice positive changes in your body, your self-esteem naturally improves, leading to a more positive self-image.

Stress relief and better sleep

Engaging in physical activity helps relieve muscle tension, reduce the production of stress hormones, and promote relaxation. This, in turn, can lead to better sleep quality. Regular exercise regulates sleep patterns and can alleviate insomnia, allowing for a more restful and rejuvenating sleep.

Increased energy and vitality

Contrary to common belief, regular physical activity boosts energy levels rather than depleting them. Engaging in exercise increases your heart rate, improves circulation, and enhances oxygen delivery to your muscles and tissues. As a result, you’ll experience a natural energy boost, feel more alert and focused, and have increased vitality throughout the day.

Social connection and improved wellbeing

Exercise provides an opportunity for social interaction and connection, which is crucial for our mental well-being. Joining a fitness class, participating in team sports, or even going for a walk with a friend or family member can foster social connections, reduce feelings of loneliness, and improve overall quality of life. By engaging in physical activity together, you can build relationships, create supportive networks, and have fun while improving your mental health.

How much exercise is enough?

The good news is that any amount of physical activity is beneficial for your mental health. You don’t need to become a fitness fanatic or spend hours at the gym to reap the rewards. The general physical activity guideline for adults is to aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity. This can be broken down into smaller increments of time throughout the week, making it more manageable and easier to incorporate into your daily routine.

Moderate aerobic activities include brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing, while vigorous aerobic activities may include running, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or playing sports. Additionally, it’s recommended to engage in strength-training exercises at least two days a week. This can involve lifting weights, using resistance bands, or performing bodyweight exercises to improve muscle strength and tone.

It’s important to note that these guidelines can be adjusted based on your current fitness level and individual circumstances. If you’re just starting or have any health concerns, it’s always advisable to consult a health professional before embarking on a new exercise program.

Getting started with exercise for mental health

Starting and maintaining an exercise routine can be challenging, especially when dealing with mental health problems. However, with the right approach and mindset, you can make physical activity a regular part of your life. Here are some tips to help you get started and stay motivated:

Find activities you enjoy

The key to sticking with physical exercise is finding activities that you genuinely enjoy. Explore different forms of physical activity and consider what resonates with you. Whether it’s dancing, hiking, swimming, or practising yoga, choose activities that bring you joy and make you feel good. When you enjoy what you’re doing, you’re more likely to stay motivated and committed to your exercise routine.

Set realistic goals

Setting realistic and achievable goals is crucial for long-term success. Start small and gradually increase the intensity and duration of your workouts. Be kind to yourself and celebrate every milestone you achieve along the way. Remember, progress is progress, no matter how small.

Make exercise a priority

Treat exercise as an essential part of your self-care routine. Prioritize your mental health by scheduling regular exercise sessions into your calendar. By making exercise a non-negotiable part of your day, you’re more likely to follow through and prioritize your mental well-being.

Be mindful and present

During your workouts, practice mindfulness by fully immersing yourself in the present moment. Pay attention to the sensations in your body, your breathing, and the environment around you. By focusing on the present, you can cultivate a sense of calm and release stress and worries.

Mix it up

Variety is key to staying engaged and avoiding exercise boredom. Incorporate a mix of different activities into your routine to keep things fresh and exciting. Try new workouts, explore outdoor activities, or join group fitness classes to add variety and keep your motivation high.

Buddy up

Exercising with a friend or joining group activities can provide extra motivation and accountability. Having a workout buddy not only makes exercise more enjoyable but also provides support and encouragement along the way. Consider joining fitness groups or classes in your community or enlist the support of a friend or family member to exercise together.

Listen to your body

Pay attention to your body’s signals and adjust your exercise routine accordingly. If you’re feeling tired or experiencing pain, it’s important to rest and give your body time to recover. Pushing yourself too hard can lead to burnout or injury, so listen to your body’s needs and adjust your workouts as necessary.

Track your progress

Keep track of your exercise routine and monitor your progress. This can be done through a fitness app, a journal, or simply marking your workouts on a calendar. Seeing your progress can be incredibly motivating and provide a sense of accomplishment.

Embrace outdoor activities

Spending time in nature has been shown to have a positive impact on mental health. Whenever possible, take your exercise outdoors. Whether it’s going for a hike, a bike ride, or simply walking in a park, immersing yourself in nature can enhance the mood-boosting effects of exercise.

Prioritise rest and recovery

Rest and recovery are essential components of any exercise routine. Ensure you’re getting enough sleep and allowing your body time to recuperate between workouts. Resting properly will not only prevent injury but also support your overall mental well-being.

Remember, the journey to better mental health through exercise is unique for each individual. Experiment with different activities, listen to your body and find what works best for you. With consistency and dedication, you can harness the transformative power of exercise to support your mental health and live a happier, more fulfilling life.

In conclusion, exercise and physical activity have a profound impact on our mental health and well-being. By incorporating regular exercise into our lives, we can experience improved mood, reduced anxiety and stress, enhanced cognitive function, increased self-esteem, better sleep, and a stronger sense of well-being. Make exercise a priority, find activities you enjoy, set realistic goals, and listen to your body. With these strategies in place, you can harness the incredible benefits of exercise for your mental health and live a more vibrant and fulfilling life.


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NowPatient has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that all material is factually accurate, complete, and current. However, the knowledge and experience of a qualified healthcare professional should always be sought after instead of using the information in this page. Before taking any drug, you should always speak to your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider.

The information provided here about medications is subject to change and is not meant to include all uses, precautions, warnings, directions, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or negative effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a particular medication does not imply that the medication or medication combination is appropriate for all patients or for all possible purposes.

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